SEGH Articles

Assessment of the environmental conditions of the Calore river basin (south Italy): a stream sediment approach

23 October 2015
Daniela Zuzolo from the University of Sannio won the Hemphill prize for best student presentation at SEGH 2015 in Bratislava. She provides a follow-up on her presentation.

 

 

In 2014 we carried out a study on the stream sediments of the Calore river (a tributary of the Volturno, the biggest south-Italian river) to assess the environmental conditions of a basin that covers 3058 Km2 (Fig.1) of the Campania region and that, until now, has been only marginally studied from this point of view.

 

Our study showed that, despite evidence from concentrations of many elements for enrichment over natural background values, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements in Calore river basin is determined mostly by geogenic factors. Figure 2 shows the main lithological features of the study area, while Figure 3 shows the spatial distribution of elemental association factor scores.

 

 

 

 

The south-western area of the basin highlighted an enrichment of many elements potentially harmful for human health and other living organisms (Al, Fe, K, Na, As, Cd, La, Pb, Th, Tl, U); but these anomalies are due to the presence of pyroclastics and alkaline volcanic lithologies.

Even where sedimentary lithologies occur (in northern area), many harmful elements (Co, Cr, Mn, Ni) have shown high concentration levels due to a natural origin.

 

 

 

 

On the other hand, a strong heavy metal contamination (Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb, Ag, Au, Hg), due to an anthropic contribution, is highlighted in many areas characterised by the presence of road junctions, urban settlements and industrial areas. Figure 4 highlights the enrichment factors of these elements: 3 - 4 time higher than the background values. The south-western area of the basin is characterised by a moderate/high degree of contamination (Fig.5), just where the two busiest roads of the area run and the highest concentration of industries occurs.

 

We assessed the distribution of the potentially harmful elements (PHE) and the related interpretations using geochemical indexes, chemometric approach and mapping of the other relevant information, all linked to PHE distribution.

First of all, 562 stream sediment samples were collected, air-dried, sieved to < 100 mesh fraction and analyzed for 37 elements after an aqua regia extraction by a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS.

Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of data were performed to show the single element distribution and the distribution of elemental association factor scores resulting from R-mode factor analyses, in order to interpret the hypothetical origin of elements’ distribution (natural, anthropogenic or mixed).

The degree of contamination of the area was evaluated through analysing the Contamination Factor index and the production of a Contamination Degree map.

This approach proved successful as it achieved meaningful results and interpretations of complex datasets. It represents a useful tool to evaluate the hypothetical origin of geochemical anomalies of stream sediments; it also allows a quantitative assessment of the metal pollution threat to ecosystem and human health.

by Daniela Zuzoloa*, Domenico Cicchellaa, Lucia Giaccioa, Ilaria Guagliardib, Libera Espositoa

a - Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, via dei Mulini 59/A, 82100 - Benevento, Italy

b - Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Calabria, Via Ponte Bucci 4, cubo 15B, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy

Keep up to date

SEGH Events

Submit Content

Members can keep in touch with their colleagues through short news and events articles of interest to the SEGH community.

Science in the News

Latest on-line papers from the SEGH journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

  • Biochar-based constructed wetlands to treat reverse osmosis rejected concentrates in chronic kidney disease endemic areas in Sri Lanka 2017-12-01

    Abstract

    The objectives were to investigate the potential remedial measures for reverse osmosis (RO) rejected water through constructed wetlands (CWs) with low-cost materials in the media established in chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) prevalent area in Sri Lanka. A pilot-scale surface and subsurface water CWs were established at the Medawachchiya community-based RO water supply unit. Locally available soil, calicut tile and biochar were used in proportions of 81, 16.5 and 2.5% (w/w), respectively, as filter materials in the subsurface. Vetiver grass and Scirpus grossus were selected for subsurface wetland while water lettuce and water hyacinth were chosen for free water surface CWs. Results showed that the CKDu sensitive parameters; total dissolved solids, hardness, total alkalinity and fluoride were reduced considerably (20–85%) and most met desirable levels of stipulated ambient standards. Biochar seemed to play a major role in removing fluoride from the system which may be due to the existing and adsorbed K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, etc. on the biochar surface via chemisorption. The least reduction was observed for alkalinity. This study indicated potential purification of aforesaid ions in water which are considerably present in RO rejection. Therefore, the invented bio-geo constructed wetland can be considered as a sustainable, economical and effective option for reducing high concentrations of CKDu sensitive parameters in RO rejected water before discharging into the inland waters.

  • Medical geology of endemic goiter in Kalutara, Sri Lanka; distribution and possible causes 2017-12-01

    Abstract

    This study assesses the distribution of goiter in the Kalutara District, Sri Lanka in order to find causative factors for the occurrence of goiter even after the salt iodization. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the household level and at the same time iodine and selenium levels of the water sources were analyzed. Questionnaire survey results indicated the highest numbers of goiter patients in the northern part where the lowest were found in the southern sector which may be due to the presence of acid sulfate soils. Females were more susceptible and it even showed a transmittance between generations. Average iodine concentrations in subsurface water of goiter endemic regions are 28.25 ± 15.47 μg/L whereas non-goiter regions show identical values at 24.74 ± 18.29 μg/L. Surface water exhibited relatively high values at 30.87 ± 16.13 μg/L. Endemic goiter was reported in some isolated patches where iodine and selenium concentrations low, latter was <10 μg/L. The formation of acid sulfate soils in the marshy lands in Kalutara district may lead to transformation of biological available iodine oxidation into volatile iodine by humic substances, at the same time organic matter rich peaty soil may have strong held of iodine and selenium which again induced by low pH and high temperature were suggested as the instrumental factors in the endemic goiter in Kalutara district. Hence, geochemical features such as soil pH, organic matter and thick lateritic cap in the Kalutara goiter endemic area play a role in controlling the available selenium and iodine for food chain through plant uptake and in water.

  • Nickel accumulation in paddy rice on serpentine soils containing high geogenic nickel contents in Taiwan 2017-12-01

    Abstract

    We investigated the extractability of nickel (Ni) in serpentine soils collected from rice paddy fields in eastern Taiwan to evaluate the bioavailability of Ni in the soils as well as for demonstrating the health risks of Ni in rice. Total Ni concentrations in the soils ranged were 70.2–2730 mg/kg (mean, 472 mg/kg), greatly exceeding the natural background content and soil control standard in Taiwan. Available Ni concentration only accounts for <10% of total soil Ni content; 0.1 N HCl-extractable Ni was the more suitable index for Ni bioavailability in the soil to rice than was diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Ni. The accumulation ability of rice roots was much higher than that of its shoots; however, compared with those reported previously, our brown and polished rice samples contained much higher Ni concentrations, within the ranges of 1.50–4.53 and 2.45–5.54 mg/kg, respectively. On the basis of the provisional tolerable Ni intake for adults recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), daily consumption of this rice can result in an excessive Ni intake.