SEGH Articles

Environmental Geochemistry in Greece: Opportunities and obstacles to development

28 September 2015
What are the opportunities and obstacles to development in the field of environmental geochemistry and health in Greece nowadays?

In the middle of an economic crisis that lasts over five years, Greek scientists are faced with enormous challenges as they try to remain focused on their research while coping with low career prospects and salary cuts. Although there is no easy answer, this article contains some thoughts on the burning question: What are the opportunities and obstacles to development in the field of environmental geochemistry and health in Greece nowadays?

Greece is characterised by an exceptionally interesting geological terrain. Laying at the edge of the European Continent, the Hellenic arc is geologically a very active area that provides the opportunity to observe and study a variety of earth system processes, ranging from typical manifestations of orogeny (including several types of ore deposits, active volcanoes and intense seismicity) to sensitive terrestrial, marine and coastal environments. As such, there are plenty "natural laboratories" providing opportunities to study environmental feedbacks and processes in action (e.g. http://www.nature.com/articles/srep12152). Furthermore, the long human history of Greece, combined with the lack of an Industrial Revolution legacy makes a very interesting case for studying the anthropogenic influence on the chemical environment through time. A key obstacle in the development is that despite its extremely rich natural capital, the country lags behind in regional baseline studies with respect to soil, sediment and water geochemistry, not to mention accessible health or epidemiological data. Systematic geochemical data are scarce and maps are only available for a few areas and at local scale (e.g. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714003234). The Greek Geological Survey (IGME) in cooperation with earth science university departments across Greece could play a leading role in the development and publication of the much needed regional geochemical databases. There are at least 4 university departments that could contribute to this effort.

However, the task seems a particularly difficult one under the present economic situation. The economic and financial crisis has left a strong mark on research and innovation policies as it shifted the attention of government onto macroeconomic stabilisation, while research and innovation have become rather an ‘orphan’ in the highest political discussions (Izsak et al, 2013). Institutional funding, such as general university funds and operational costs for Research Organisations and Universities, has since 2009 been further reduced due to the salary cuts for researchers and academics, the cutback of other operational costs, and the restructuring of the public research sector through mergers. On top of this, insufficient funding absorption had been identified even before the crisis hit the country. Although Greek scientists have been very successful in winning funding from the FP7, being awarded more euros per researcher than almost any other European Union (EU) country, the planned reforms, spurred by the financial crisis, failed to capitalise on these successes as it was initially believed (Abbott, 2011). During the crisis in Greece the severely reduced budget of the Public Investment Programme led to the limited absorption of the Structural Funds - almost the only available resource for funding research development and innovation projects. The low R&D capacity and links between academia and industry may partially explain this outcome.

Many Greek scientists living and working in Greece today agree that the ongoing damage to Greek scientific research is not solely due to austerity measures. According to Kevin Featherstone (2015), an ex-member of Greece’s National Council for Research and Technology, political manipulation and institutional weakness are contributing to the situation. In his article he brings out the example of the open, competitive grant scheme (called Aristeia, or excellence) based on the European Research Council model introduced by the council in 2011 in order to address the dire problem of underfunded research. The scheme ran only for two rounds, during which the council had to battle against other governmental forces to maintain its EU funding and was then abandoned. Featherstone's concluding comment reads: "The council’s experience reflects the wider problems of Greece’s government: how it seeks and receives expert advice, the public status of this process and the near-impossibility of rational, stable long-term planning". The above described situation as well as pre-existing obstacles such as the low remuneration levels for researchers and limited career progression prospects compared to the offer in other Western and Northern European countries is also the root to a severe brain drain phenomenon within the research community in Greece; geosciences are not an exception in this. Brain drain nonetheless also goes beyond researchers to include for example engineers, architects, health care workers etc. who given high unemployment rates search for jobs beyond our own borders (Izsak et al, 2013).

So, one wonders if there is a way out of the vicious circle and any chance for development in the field of environmental geochemistry in Greece at the moment? A first step might be for the Greek researchers to try avoid introversion and keep alive the links with the international scientific community. SEGH has been a very successful community in making networking opportunities through its annual conferences and meetings as well as by participating in SEGH badged events. Within this frame the forthcoming event of the 14th International Conference of the Greek Geological Society, organised by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece in 25-27 May 2016 provides an excellent opportunity for sharing expertise and to get a flavour of the current research advancements in Greece. The primary goal of the Conference is the presentation of the most recent advances in Geo- and Environmental Sciences, mainly in the Aegean Region and its surroundings, aiming at highlighting their impacts on natural resources, natural hazards, and environmental problems. A special session of the conference, entitled "Environmental Geochemistry: mobility and speciation of chemical elements in the system rock-soil-water-plant" is endorsed by SEGH. The session aims to bring together cross‐disciplinary scientists including geologists and geochemists, soil and plant scientists, engineers and environmental chemists and to provide the opportunity for exchanging knowledge and experiences from the Aegean Region and beyond, fostering future collaboration in the field of study. For more information about the conference and the submission procedures, please visit its website at www.ege2016.gr. The extended deadline for submitting papers and early registration is October 25, 2015.


by Dr Ariadne Argyraki, 

University of Athens



References

Abbott, A. (2011). Greek crisis spurs research reforms. Nature, 475, 13-14.

Featherstone, K. (2015) Greek politics stall research reforms. Nature, 518, 167.

Izsak, K., Markianidou, P., Lukach, R., Wastyn, A. (2013). The impact of the crisis on research and innovation policies. Study for the European Commission DG Research by Technopolis Group Belgium and Idea Consult.

Keep up to date

Submit Content

Members can keep in touch with their colleagues through short news and events articles of interest to the SEGH community.

Science in the News

Latest on-line papers from the SEGH journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

  • Fertilizer usage and cadmium in soils, crops and food 2018-06-23

    Abstract

    Phosphate fertilizers were first implicated by Schroeder and Balassa (Science 140(3568):819–820, 1963) for increasing the Cd concentration in cultivated soils and crops. This suggestion has become a part of the accepted paradigm on soil toxicity. Consequently, stringent fertilizer control programs to monitor Cd have been launched. Attempts to link Cd toxicity and fertilizers to chronic diseases, sometimes with good evidence, but mostly on less certain data are frequent. A re-assessment of this “accepted” paradigm is timely, given the larger body of data available today. The data show that both the input and output of Cd per hectare from fertilizers are negligibly small compared to the total amount of Cd/hectare usually present in the soil itself. Calculations based on current agricultural practices are used to show that it will take centuries to double the ambient soil Cd level, even after neglecting leaching and other removal effects. The concern of long-term agriculture should be the depletion of available phosphate fertilizers, rather than the negligible contamination of the soil by trace metals from fertilizer inputs. This conclusion is confirmed by showing that the claimed correlations between fertilizer input and Cd accumulation in crops are not robust. Alternative scenarios that explain the data are presented. Thus, soil acidulation on fertilizer loading and the effect of Mg, Zn and F ions contained in fertilizers are considered using recent \(\hbox {Cd}^{2+}\) , \(\hbox {Mg}^{2+}\) and \(\hbox {F}^-\) ion-association theories. The protective role of ions like Zn, Se, Fe is emphasized, and the question of Cd toxicity in the presence of other ions is considered. These help to clarify difficulties in the standard point of view. This analysis does not modify the accepted views on Cd contamination by airborne delivery, smoking, and industrial activity, or algal blooms caused by phosphates.

  • Effects of conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds on accumulation, speciation and risk of heavy metals in intertidal sediments 2018-06-23

    Abstract

    Mangroves are often converted into gei wai ponds for aquaculture, but how such conversion affects the accumulation and behavior of heavy metals in sediments is not clear. The present study aims to quantify the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sediments in different habitats, including gei wai pond, mangrove marsh dominated by Avicennia marina and bare mudflat, in a mangrove nature reserve in South China. The results showed that gei wai pond acidified the sediment and reduced its electronic conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC) when compared to A. marina marsh and mudflat. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb at all sediment depths in gei wai pond were lower than the other habitats, indicating gei wai pond reduced the fertility and the ability to retain heavy metals in sediment. Gei wai pond sediment also had a lower heavy metal pollution problem according to multiple evaluation methods, including potential ecological risk coefficient, potential ecological risk index, geo-accumulation index, mean PEL quotients, pollution load index, mean ERM quotients and total toxic unit. Heavy metal speciation analysis showed that gei wai pond increased the transfer of the immobilized fraction of Cd and Cr to the mobilized one. According to the acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) analysis, the conversion of mangroves into gei wai pond reduced values of ([SEM] − [AVS])/f oc , and the role of TOC in alleviating heavy metal toxicity in sediment. This study demonstrated the conversion of mangrove marsh into gei wai pond not only reduced the ecological purification capacity on heavy metal contamination, but also enhanced the transfer of heavy metals from gei wai pond sediment to nearby habitats.

  • Cytotoxicity induced by the mixture components of nickel and poly aromatic hydrocarbons 2018-06-22

    Abstract

    Although particulate matter (PM) is composed of various chemicals, investigations regarding the toxicity that results from mixing the substances in PM are insufficient. In this study, the effects of low levels of three PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene) on Ni toxicity were investigated to assess the combined effect of Ni–PAHs on the environment. We compared the difference in cell mortality and total glutathione (tGSH) reduction between single Ni and Ni–PAHs co-exposure using A549 (human alveolar carcinoma). In addition, we measured the change in Ni solubility in chloroform that was triggered by PAHs to confirm the existence of cation–π interactions between Ni and PAHs. In the single Ni exposure, the dose–response curve of cell mortality and tGSH reduction were very similar, indicating that cell death was mediated by the oxidative stress. However, 10 μM PAHs induced a depleted tGSH reduction compared to single Ni without a change in cell mortality. The solubility of Ni in chloroform was greatly enhanced by the addition of benz[a]anthracene, which demonstrates the cation–π interactions between Ni and PAHs. Ni–PAH complexes can change the toxicity mechanisms of Ni from oxidative stress to others due to the reduction of Ni2+ bioavailability and the accumulation of Ni–PAH complexes on cell membranes. The abundant PAHs contained in PM have strong potential to interact with metals, which can affect the toxicity of the metal. Therefore, the mixture toxicity and interactions between diverse metals and PAHs in PM should be investigated in the future.