SEGH Articles

Malcolm Brown: at the heart of SEGH

03 July 2016
It was with great sadness that we heard of the passing of Malcolm Brown in April after a long battle with illness. Malcolm worked at the heart of SEGH as the Secretary of the society

 
 
It was with great sadness that we heard of the passing of Malcolm Brown in April after a long battle with illness.  Malcolm was involved with SEGH for the past 30 years and in particular worked at the heart of SEGH as the Secretary of the society for many years, initially in the European Section and latterly as Secretary to the International Committee.  In this role, he was instrumental in maintaining momentum between annual board meetings and conferences in order to take forward key decision making in the development 

of SEGH.  More recently, over the last 12-18 months, Malcolm was instrumental in applying to the UK Charities commission and, although unsuccessful, the experience contributed to his leadership in rewriting the SEGH constitution to ensure its relevance for today and the future.

Malcolm drew on his more than 30 years’ experience at the British Geological Survey (BGS) as a geologist mapping the UK and worked in the early days in the Geochemical Baseline Survey. For a number of years leading up to his retirement, Malcolm headed up the Business Development unit at BGS, working with a variety of academic, regulatory, government, industry and other societies to encourage their use of geoscientific data.  His scientific interests extended beyond “simple “ geology and  geochemistry through to linking environmental geochemistry to health issues, bringing to bear his skills in networking and promoting cross-disciplinary work, which is at the very heart of what SEGH is trying to accomplish.

Malcolm and his wife Anthea have together been at the heart of SEGH for many years, with Anthea acting as membership secretary.  They have both unselfishly, even after retirement, contributed significantly to SEGH through their tireless efforts in the organisation of administration and management activities, as well as support to the European conferences.  Their constant presence has provided continuity through a ‘corporate memory’, quietly steering SEGH through the regular changes of Presidents and Regional Chairs, riding out the sometimes strong differences of opinion and viewpoints with utmost diplomacy, making significant contributions to the defusing of tensions and the production of satisfying outcomes.  Malcolm has been described by many on the SEGH board as a true gentleman, fair, determined and dependable, keen to help others and enthusiastic in bringing people together from different science disciplines and interests, in particular encouraging ‘young blood’ to participate in the organisation of SEGH.


On behalf of the SEGH board, we express our condolences to Anthea and her family, but also our thanks for Malcolm’s contribution to the survival of SEGH over many years in what has been a competitive environment for similar Societies, but also in setting SEGH on a path of modernisation.

Michael Watts, Andrew Hursthouse and Alex Stewart

 
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Latest on-line papers from the SEGH journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

  • Ecological impact of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on microbial community of aerobic activated sludge 2019-08-16

    Abstract

    This study investigated the effects and fate of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) at environmentally relevant levels (50–500 µg/L) in activated sludge (AS) microbial communities under aerobic conditions. Exposure to 500 µg/L of CIP decreased species diversity by about 20% and significantly altered the phylogenetic structure of AS communities compared to those of control communities (no CIP exposure), while there were no significant changes upon exposure to 50 µg/L of CIP. Analysis of community composition revealed that exposure to 500 µg/L of CIP significantly reduced the relative abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and Nakamurellaceae by more than tenfold. These species frequently occur in AS communities across many full-scale wastewater treatment plants and are involved in key ecosystem functions (i.e., organic matter and nitrogen removal). Our analyses showed that 50–500 µg/L CIP was poorly removed in AS (about 20% removal), implying that the majority of CIP from AS processes may be released with either their effluents or waste sludge. We therefore strongly recommend further research on CIP residuals and/or post-treatment processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) for waste streams that may cause ecological risks in receiving water bodies.

  • Source and background threshold values of potentially toxic elements in soils by multivariate statistics and GIS-based mapping: a high density sampling survey in the Parauapebas basin, Brazilian Amazon 2019-08-10

    Abstract

    A high-density regional-scale soil geochemical survey comprising 727 samples (one sample per each 5 × 5 km grid) was carried out in the Parauapebas sub-basin of the Brazilian Amazonia, under the Itacaiúnas Basin Geochemical Mapping and Background Project. Samples were taken from two depths at each site: surface soil, 0–20 cm and deep soil, 30–50 cm. The ground and sieved (< 75 µm) fraction was digested using aqua regia and analyzed for 51 elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). All data were used here, but the principal focus was on the potential toxic elements (PTEs) and Fe and Mn to evaluate the spatial distribution patterns and to establish their geochemical background concentrations in soils. Geochemical maps as well as principal component analysis (PCA) show that the distribution patterns of the elements are very similar between surface and deep soils. The PCA, applied on clr-transformed data, identified four major associations: Fe–Ti–V–Sc–Cu–Cr–Ni (Gp-1); Zr–Hf–U–Nb–Th–Al–P–Mo–Ga (Gp-2); K–Na–Ca–Mg–Ba–Rb–Sr (Gp-3); and La–Ce–Co–Mn–Y–Zn–Cd (Gp-4). Moreover, the distribution patterns of elements varied significantly among the three major geological domains. The whole data indicate a strong imprint of local geological setting in the geochemical associations and point to a dominant geogenic origin for the analyzed elements. Copper and Fe in Gp-1 were enriched in the Carajás basin and are associated with metavolcanic rocks and banded-iron formations, respectively. However, the spatial distribution of Cu is also highly influenced by two hydrothermal mineralized copper belts. Ni–Cr in Gp-1 are highly correlated and spatially associated with mafic and ultramafic units. The Gp-2 is partially composed of high field strength elements (Zr, Hf, Nb, U, Th) that could be linked to occurrences of A-type Neoarchean granites. The Gp-3 elements are mobile elements which are commonly found in feldspars and other rock-forming minerals being liberated by chemical weathering. The background threshold values (BTV) were estimated separately for surface and deep soils using different methods. The ‘75th percentile’, which commonly used for the estimation of the quality reference values (QRVs) following the Brazilian regulation, gave more restrictive or conservative (low) BTVs, while the ‘MMAD’ was more realistic to define high BTVs that can better represent the so-called mineralized/normal background. Compared with CONAMA Resolution (No. 420/2009), the conservative BTVs of most of the toxic elements were below the prevention limits (PV), except Cu, but when the high BTVs are considered, Cu, Co, Cr and Ni exceeded the PV limits. The degree of contamination (Cdeg), based on the conservative BTVs, indicates low contamination, except in the Carajás basin, which shows many anomalies and had high contamination mainly from Cu, Cr and Ni, but this is similar between surface and deep soils indicating that the observed high anomalies are strictly related to geogenic control. This is supported when the Cdeg is calculated using the high BTVs, which indicates low contamination. This suggests that the use of only conservative BTVs for the entire region might overestimate the significance of anthropogenic contamination; thus, we suggest the use of high BTVs for effective assessment of soil contamination in this region. The methodology and results of this study may help developing strategies for geochemical mapping in other Carajás soils or in other Amazonian soils with similar characteristics.

  • Uptake of Cd, Pb, and Ni by Origanum syriacum produced in Lebanon 2019-08-06

    Abstract

    Trace metals are found naturally in soil. However, the increase in industrial and agricultural polluting activities has increased trace metal contamination and raised high concerns in the public health sector. The study was conducted on Origanum syriacum, one of the most consumed herbs in the Middle East, and was divided into three parts. (1) Pot experiment: to study the effect of Cd, Pb, or Ni levels in soil on their uptake by O. syriacum. (2) Field samples: collected from major agricultural regions in Lebanon to analyze Cd, Pb, and Ni concentrations in soil and leaves. (3) Sale outlets samples: to measure the levels of Cd, Pb, and Ni in O. syriacum tissues in the market. Results showed that there was a positive correlation between levels of Cd, Pb, and Ni in soil and those in O. syriacum tissues. None of the field samples contained Pb or Ni that exceeded the maximum allowable limits (MAL). Three samples collected from heavily poultry-manured soil contained Cd higher than the MAL. Samples collected from sale outlets did not exceed the MAL for Ni but two exceeded the MAL for Cd and one for Pb. Trace metal contamination is not a major concern in O. syriacum produced in Lebanon. Only one mixture sample from a sale outlet was higher in Pb than the MAL and three samples from heavily manured fields exceeded the MAL for Cd.