SEGH Articles

SEGH 2018 Vic Falls: Geochemistry for Sustainable Development

17 July 2018
Find out about the 34th SEGH International conference activities at the Avani Victoria Falls Resort, Livingstone, Zambia 2-7th July 2018

Delegates attending the annual Society for Environmental Geochemistry and Health (SEGH) conference were treated to a spectacular conference venue alongside the Zambezi and Victoria Falls in Zambia. Thankfully we were presented with an engaging and varied programme of 45 oral presentations and 46 poster presentations to avoid VicFalls becoming a distraction to the 100+ delegates from all over the world during the scientific programme, with the following themes:

Industrial and Urban Development

Agriculture

Health

Technologies

Whilst we had specialist presentations within each theme from the impact of mining to highly focussed talks about laboratory methods and mechanisms for nutrient/pollutant pathways, delegates also had a very healthy debate about corporate and social responsibility (CSR) for mining. Discussions were stimulated on ethics in science, via an audience participation talk from Kate Millar-University of Nottingham to round off the conference. In addition, presenters discussed activities where environmental sciences crossover with human and animal health. For example, possible links between geochemistry and cancer from IARC-WHO, use of data for hazard-risk assessment criteria for contaminated soils and air pollution to implications for nutrient deficiencies and exposure to potentially harmful elements effecting wildlife.  Implications for food production and food safety were discussed due to fertiliser overuse, urban development, pollution and with an ever increasing theme on fisheries, in particular the value of aquaculture to provide food/nutrient sufficiency, but also implications for antimicrobial resistance in fish (AMR). Conservation Agriculture to promote crop resilience and improve their micronutrient content. Laboratory method/technology development, with applications on improving the understanding of mechanistic pathways for pollutants or nutrients were presented using isotope tracers and/or elemental speciation, along with organic pollutants, biomarkers for ecological and human health monitoring through to remediation technologies.  Overall, each session was well attended throughout.

Poster presentations

Poster presentations were run across two evenings with social events, preceded by 90-second flash presentations, which generated a great deal of amusement with the delegates, given the competitiveness of the presenters to beat the clock – otherwise the audience would applaud at 90-seconds and the next presenter had to be ready to go after 15 seconds. This approach was certainly a big factor in helping to generate a relaxed atmosphere at the conference and encourage interaction between disciplines and levels of experience.  This made for two vibrant poster sessions giving the presenters the much deserved attention and recognition posters require, where often valuable nuggets of scientific progress are to be found at conferences.


Training Day

Many thanks to the volunteers who provided the training workshops on day 4 following on from three days of presentations.  The morning began with parallel sessions on an Introduction to QGIS given by Dr Daniel Middleton (IARC-WHO), alongside ‘Embedding Ethics in Experimental Design in Geochemistry Research’ by Dr Kate Millar (University of Nottingham), followed by ‘Reviewing manuscripts and getting published’ by Professor Jane Entwistle (Northumbria University).  The afternoon followed with an ‘Introduction to R’ by Professor Murray Lark (University of Nottingham) in parallel with ‘Epidemiologic study design and interpretation’ by Dr Valerie McCormack and Dr Joachim Schuz (IARC-WHO).  Given that the courses followed the conference programme and BOMA dinner, they were well attended with 18-20 in each of the technical courses and 11-16 in each of the vocational courses, with >50% of the participants from Africa.  Another blog will follow to describe further outcomes from the training courses and how we will link these into the setting up of an Early Career Researchers group – more on this later.

Prizes

Prizes were awarded to Elliott Hamilton (British Geological Survey) and Lin Peng (Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College) for best Oral presentations and to Nswana Kafwamfwa (Zambia Agriculture Research Institute-ZARI) and Mumba Mwape (ZARI) for best Poster presentations.  Many thanks to Springer-Nature Publications provided book vouchers for 2 x $250 for Oral presentations and 2 x $150 for Poster presentations (photos curtesy of Prof Chaosheng Zhang, University of Galway).

Social programme

The evening before the conference presentations started we held an ice-breaker at the Royal Livingstone Hotel alongside the Zambezi.  A stunning setting to relax delegates and get them mixing with one another.  Local media were present, with an article about the conference and SEGH appearing on page 2 of the Zambia Times the next day and interviews with delegates shown on local TV the following night – see @SocEGH Twitter for newspaper article.

Days 1 & 2 were rounded off by the poster sessions, with food and drinks, leading up to the BOMA-conference dinner next to the Zambezi, some 100m upstream of Victoria Falls.  The food provided something for everyone, with a delicious braai accompanied by a local performing traditional dance and music, which gradually swept up even in the most self-conscious people to dance the night away.  The willingness of everyone to let their hair down and have fun was quite something, truly down to the warmth and fun you find in Africa.

 

Photo curtesy of Prof. Chaosheng Zhang, University of Galway.

The fieldtrip incorporated a trip to a cultural village centre which I have to admit I didn’t attend, but I heard that it was an enriching visit to understand some of the local culture and to be welcomed into people’s homes – perhaps others can explain.  However, I did make the finale of the fieldtrip, the sunset cruise on the Zambezi.  This was a fantastic way to round off the conference with a gentle trip upstream along the Zambezi attempting to spot wildlife on the banks with nice food and drinks, which of course led to more music and dancing on the boat.  Many people continued their travels connecting with friends and family to make a holiday of the visit to the Victoria Falls region for wildlife viewing or crazy activities like bungee jumping or rafting the Zambezi.

SEGH Business

Whilst a lot of new connections were made and old cemented during the conference, SEGH also had a number of key tasks to perform for its future structure.  Most of all, that included restructuring the international board to have four representatives from each of the European, Americas, Asia/Pacific regions and to set up a new section in Africa to fill a gap in multidisciplinary communities.  Nominations will be called for shortly, with elections soon after.  We will ask for greater contributions from members to drive the society forward, this could be ad hoc for information gathering or if members want to participate on the advisory council or through the Early Career Researchers (ECR) group.  SEGH2018 was a big step in setting up the ECR, for which Jane Entwistle set out future plans to develop a programme of mentorship, training opportunities and interaction over a three year supported period whereby ECR members will be connected with appropriate SEGH members.  We have an initial grouping of 25 ECR’s from SEGH2018 to develop the programme, which will become available to others to balance the demographics as we establish the programme.  We also see this grouping as a test bed and for generating new ideas to develop SEGH, improving communication with social media and hopefully for succession management to run SEGH in the future.  ECR’s will have an opportunity to develop through to a Fellowship status for SEGH (FSEGH), as will senior researchers who have been engaged with SEGH for a number of years.  Jane Entwistle will follow up with more information on this later.

SEGH Journal

We reported that the impact factor for the SEGH journal, Environmental Geochemistry and Health (EGAH) increased again this year to 2.99, continuing its success as a home for multidisciplinary science.  Members can access the journal through the log-in button on the front page of www.segh.net Delegates, please remember we have a special issue in EGAH for the conference.  Please indicate your interest by the 20th August.  We will aim for a submission date of 12th October.

Thanks

Many thanks to the people who helped to bring together the conference – there were many!  We had a lot of encouraging words about the conference, please do post any comments on Twitter.  In particular, many thanks to the sponsors who helped in keeping the social programme inclusive for all delegates – Agilent Technologies, First Quantum, Trace2O-Wagtech, Retsch, Spectro-Ametek and Chemetrix, as well as Sandy's Creation and Grand Palace Hotels and InvestTrust Bank.

Future

We look forward to a strong programme of conferences next year, with SEGH 2019 moving to Manchester in the UK, SEGH involvement in ISEGH in China, China-Ireland Cooperation in Galway-Ireland and we hope to run some smaller 1-2 day meetings in Africa and elsewhere to maintain engagement with members – if you have some ideas, do let us know.  Keep in touch with SEGH events through the website and do offer your scientific updates, comments or stories to www.segh.net and through @SocEGH on twitter and upcoming pages on Facebook.  We will post an updated version of the SEGH2018 conference abstract book in a week or so to account for the last minute changes to the programme – see https://segh2018.org

 

by Michael Watts

British Geological Survey & SEGH President

On behalf of co-organisers

Professor Kenneth Maseka, Copperbelt University

Dr Godfrey Sakala, Zambia Agriculture Research Institute

Dr Moola Mutondo, Copperbelt University

 

 

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Latest on-line papers from the SEGH journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

  • Arsenic exposure and perception of health risk due to groundwater contamination in Majuli (river island), Assam, India 2019-07-19

    Abstract

    Island populations are rarely studied for risk of arsenic (As) poisoning. As poisoning, multimetal contamination and people’s perceptions of health risks were assessed on India’s Majuli Island, the largest inhabited river island in the world. This holistic approach illustrated the association of groundwater contamination status with consequent health risk by measuring levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater, borehole sediment and biological samples (hair, nails and urine). Piper and Gibbs’s plots discerned the underlying hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. Demographic data and qualitative factors were evaluated to assess the risks and uncertainties of exposure. The results exhibited significant enrichment of groundwater with As, Mn and Fe along with significant body burden. Maximum Hazard Index values indicated severe non-carcinogenic health impacts as well as a significantly elevated risk of cancer for both adults and children. Most (99%) of the locally affected population did not know about the adverse health impacts of metal contamination, and only 15% understood bodily ailments and health issues. Various aspects of the island environment were used to elucidate the status of contamination and future risk of disease. A projection showed adverse health outcomes rising significantly, especially among the young population of Majuli, due to overexposure to not only As but also Ba, Mn and Fe.

  • The contents of the potentially harmful elements in the arable soils of southern Poland, with the assessment of ecological and health risks: a case study 2019-07-19

    Abstract

    Agricultural soil samples were collected from the areas where edible plants had been cultivated in southern Poland. The PHE content decreased in proportion to the median value specified in brackets (mg/kg d.m.) as follows: Zn (192) > Pb (47.1) > Cr (19.6) > Cu (18.8) > Ni (9.91) > As (5.73) > Co (4.63) > Sb (0.85) > Tl (0.04) > Cd (0.03) > Hg (0.001) > Se (< LOQ). No PHE concentrations exceeded the permissible levels defined in the Polish law. The PHE solubility (extracted with CaCl2) in the total concentration ranged in the following order: Fe (3.3%) > Cd (2.50%) > Ni (0.75%) > Zn (0.48%) > Cu (0.19%) > Pb (0.10%) > Cr (0.03%). The soil contamination indices revealed moderate contamination with Zn, ranging from uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with Pb, and, practically, no contamination with other PHEs was identified. The ecological risk indices revealed that soils ranged from uncontaminated to slightly contaminated with Zn, Pb, As, Cu, and Ni. The PCA indicated natural sources of origin of Co, Cu, Hg, Sb, Zn, Cr, and Pb, as well as anthropogenic sources of origin of Cd, Ni, As, and Tl. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) for adults and children decreased in the following order of exposure pathways: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation of soil particles. The total carcinogenic risk values for both adults and children were at the acceptable level under residential (1.62E−05 and 6.39E−05) and recreational scenario (5.41E−06 and 2.46E−05), respectively, as well as for adults in agricultural scenario (1.45E−05). The total non-carcinogenic risk values for both adults and children under residential scenario (1.63E−01 and 4.55E−01, respectively), under recreational scenario (2.88E−01 and 6.69E−01, respectively) and for adults (1.03E−01) under agricultural scenario indicated that adverse health effects were not likely to be observed. Investigated soils were fully suitable for edible plant cultivation.

  • Using human hair and nails as biomarkers to assess exposure of potentially harmful elements to populations living near mine waste dumps 2019-07-17

    Abstract

    Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were measured in human hair/nails, staple crops and drinking water to ascertain the level of exposure to dust transference via wind and rain erosion for members of the Mugala community living near a mine waste dump in the Zambian Copperbelt. The mean PHE concentrations of hair in decreasing order were Zn (137 ± 21 mg/kg), Cu (38 ± 7 mg/kg), Mn (16 ± 2 mg/kg), Pb (4.3 ± 1.9 mg/kg), Ni (1.3 ± 0.2 mg/kg) and Cr (1.2 ± 0.2 mg/kg), Co (0.9 ± 0.2 mg/kg) and Cd (0.30 ± 0.02 mg/kg). Whilst for toenails the decreasing order of mean concentrations was Zn (172 ± 27 mg/kg), Cu (30 ± 5 mg/kg), Mn (12 ± 2 mg/kg), Pb (4.8 ± 0.5 mg/kg), Ni (1.7 ± 0.14 mg/kg) and Co (1.0 ± 0.02 mg/kg), Cr (0.6 ± 0.1 mg/kg) and Cd (0.1 ± 0.002 mg/kg). The concentration of these potentially harmful elements (PHEs) varied greatly among different age groups. The results showed that Mn, Co, Pb, Cd and Zn were above the interval values (Biolab in Nutritional and environmental medicine, Hair Mineral Analysis, London, 2012) at 0.2–2.0 mg/kg for Mn, 0.01–0.20 mg/kg for Co, < 2.00 mg/kg for Pb, < 0.10 mg/kg for Cd and 0.2–2.00 mg/kg for Zn, whilst Ni, Cu and Cr concentrations were within the normal range concentrations of < 1.40 mg/kg, 10–100 mg/kg and 0.1–1.5 mg/kg, respectively. Dietary intake of PHEs was assessed from the ingestion of vegetables grown in Mugala village, with estimated PHE intakes expressed on a daily basis calculated for Mn (255), Pb (48), Ni (149) and Cd (33) µg/kg bw/day. For these metals, DI via vegetables was above the proposed limits of the provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) (WHO in Evaluation of certain food additive and contaminants, Seventy-third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 2011) for Mn at 70 µg/kg bw/day, Pb at 3 µg/kg bw/day, Ni and Cd 5 µg/kg bw/day and 1 µg/kg bw/day, respectively. The rest of the PHEs listed were within the PTDIs limits. Therefore, Mugala inhabitants are at imminent health risk due to lead, nickel and cadmium ingestion of vegetables and drinking water at this location.