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Science in the News

Latest on-line papers from the SEGH journal: Environmental Geochemistry and Health

  • Total arsenic concentrations in Chinese children’s urine by different geographic locations, ages, and genders 2018-06-01

    Abstract

    Little is known about the variation of Chinese children’s exposure to arsenic by geography, age, gender, and other potential factors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the total arsenic concentration in Chinese children’s urine by geographic locations, ages, and genders. In total, 259 24-h urine samples were collected from 210 2- to 12-year-old children in China and analyzed for total arsenic and creatinine concentrations. The results showed that the upper limit (upper limit of the 90% confidence interval for the 97.5 fractile) was 27.51 µg/L or 55.88 µg/g creatinine for Chinese children. The total urinary arsenic levels were significantly different for children in Guangdong, Hubei, and Gansu provinces (P < 0.05), where the upper limits were 24.29, 58.70, and 44.29 µg/g creatinine, respectively. In addition, the total urinary arsenic levels were higher for 2- to 7-year-old children than for 7- to 12-year-old children (P < 0.05; the upper limits were 59.06 and 44.29 µg/g creatinine, respectively) and higher for rural children than for urban children (P < 0.05; the upper limits were 59.06 and 50.44 µg/g creatinine, respectively). The total urinary arsenic levels for boys were not significantly different from those for girls (P > 0.05), although the level for boys (the upper limit was 59.30 µg/g) was slightly higher than that for girls (the upper limit was 58.64 µg/g creatinine). Because the total urinary arsenic concentrations are significantly different for general populations of children in different locations and age groups, the reference level of total urinary arsenic might be dependent on the geographic site and the child’s age.

  • The pollution characteristics of PM 2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers’ Meeting 2018-06-01

    Abstract

    The pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and correlation analysis with meteorological parameters in Xinxiang during the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Prime Ministers’ Meeting were investigated. During the whole meeting, nine PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Xinxiang, and the average concentration of PM2.5 was 122.28 μg m−3. NO3 , NH4 +, SO4 2− accounted for 56.8% of the total water-soluble ions. In addition, with an exception of Cl, all of water-soluble ions decreased during the meeting. Total concentrations of crustal elements ranged from 6.53 to 185.86 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 52.51 μg m−3, which accounted for 82.5% of total elements. The concentrations of organic carbon and elemental carbon were 7.71 and 1.52 μg m−3, respectively, lower than those before and after the meeting. It is indicated that during the meeting, limiting motor vehicles is to reduce exhaust emissions, delay heating is to reduce the fossil fuel combustion, and other measures are to reduce the concentration of PM2.5. The directly dispersing by mixing layer height increase and the indirectly reducing the formation of secondary aerosol by low relative humidity, and these are the only two key removing mechanisms of PM2.5 in Xinxiang during the meeting.

  • Review of total suspended particles (TSP) and PM 2.5 concentration variations in Asia during the years of 1998–2015 2018-06-01

    Abstract

    In Asian countries such as China, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and Hong Kong, ambient air total suspended particulates and PM2.5 concentration data were collected and discussed during the years of 1998–2015 in this study. The aim of the present study was to (1) investigate and collect ambient air total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 concentrations for Asian countries during the past two decades. (2) Discuss, analyze and compare those particulates (TSP and PM2.5) annual concentration distribution trends among those Asian countries during the past two decades. (3) Test the mean concentration differences in TSP and PM2.5 among the Asian countries during the past decades. The results indicated that the mean TSP concentration order was shown as China > Malaysia > Pakistan > India > Taiwan > Korea > Japan. In addition, the mean PM2.5 concentration order was shown as Vietnam > India > China > Hong Kong > Mongolia > Korea > Taiwan > Japan and the average percentages of PM2.5 concentrations for Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Mongolia and Other (India and Vietnam) were 8, 21, 6, 8, 14, 13 and 30%, respectively, during the past two decades. Moreover, t test results revealed that there were significant mean TSP and PM2.5 concentration differences for either China or India to any of the countries such as Taiwan, Korea and Japan in Asia during the past two decades for this study. Noteworthy, China and India are both occupied more than 60% of the TSP and PM2.5 particulates concentrations out of all the Asia countries. As for Taiwan, the average PM2.5 concentration displayed increasing trend in the years of 1998–1999. However, it showed decreasing trend in the years of 2000–2010. As for Korea, the average PM2.5 concentrations showed decreasing trend during the years of 2001–2013. Finally, the average PM2.5 concentrations for Mongolia displayed increasing trend in the years of 2004–2013.